Art movements O – S

By | January 3, 2014

Art movements O – S


Op art or optical art is used to describe paintings and other works of art which use optical illusions.

Op Art

Op art or optical art is used to describe paintings and other works of art which use optical illusions. Op art works are abstract. When the viewer looks at them the impression is given of movement, hidden images, vibration, patterns, or of swelling or warping.

Artists: Richard Allen, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Carlos Cruz-Díez, Julio Le Parc, Bridget Riley, Julian Stanczak, Jesús Rafael Soto, Günther Uecker, Victor Vasarely.

Pop Art, 1950s – 1960s

Pop art is a art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art is one of the major art movements of the twentieth century. Characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture as a reaction to the then dominant ideas of abstract expressionism. Pop art aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be the last modern art movements and precursors to postmodern art.

Artists: Sir Peter Blake, Patrick Caulfield, Jim Dine, Erró, William Eggleston, Marisol Escobar, Richard Hamilton, Keith Haring, David Hockney, Jasper Johns, Allen Jones, Roy Lichtenstein, Richard Lindner, Claes Oldenburg, Eduardo Paolozzi, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, Ed Ruscha, George Segal, Andy Warhol, John Wesley, Tom Wesselmann


Postmodernism is any of several movements that are reactions against the philosophy and practices of modern art movements and are typically marked by revival of traditional elements and techniques. Postmodernity is the derivative to refer to non-art aspects of history that were influenced by the new movement.

The term is closely linked with poststructuralism (Jacques Derrida) and with modernism, in terms of a rejection of its bourgeois and elitist culture. Postmodernism is characterized by the abandonment of strong divisions of genre and “high” and “low” art.

Artists: Jeff Koons, Cindy Sherman, Georg Baseliz, Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer, Sigmar Polke, Francesco Clemente, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Jenny Holzer.

The Sick Girl, Christian Krohg (Norway), 188

The Sick Girl, Christian Krohg (Norway), 1881

Realism, ca 1855 – ca 1880

Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without interpretation. Realism also refers to a mid-19th century cultural movement with its roots in France, where it was a very popular art form around the mid to late 1800s. It came about with the introduction of photography – a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce things that look “objectively real”. Realism was heavily against romanticism. Realism believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against exaggerated emotionalism. Truth and accuracy became the aims of many Realists.

Artists: Gustave Courbet, Jean Francois Millet, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, John Singer Sargent, JA MacNeil Whistler, Honore Daumier, Christian Krohg.

Black square, Kazimir Malevitj (Alt. Kazimir Malevich, Малевич, Казимир)

Black square, Kazimir Malevitj (Alt. Kazimir Malevich, Малевич, Казимир)


Suprematism is an art movement focused on fundamental geometric forms, squares and circles, which formed in Russia in 1915-1916.

Artists: Kazimir Malevitj, Alternative spelling: Kasimir Malewitsch, (german), Kazimir Malevich, (english), Kazimir Malevich (french), Малевич, Казимир (russian), Olga Rozanova.


Surrealism is an art movement that began in the mid-1920s and committed to expressing the imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason and convention.

Artists: Giorgio de Chirico, Salvador Dalí, Oscar Dominguez, Max Ernst, René Magritte, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Eric Grate, Endre Nemes.

Salomé, Gustave Moreau 1876

Salomé, Gustave Moreau 1876

Symbolism, ca 1880 – ca 1910

Symbolism was a reaction against Naturalism and Realism art movements. The styles of the Symbolist painters varied considerably. The erotic, death and immorality were common interests for the Symbolists.

Artists: Gustave Moreau, Odilon Redon, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Henri Fantin-Latour, Edward Munch, Arnold Böcklin, Felicien Rops, Gustave Klimt.